Chapter 7
Cliff Notes:

I. The evolution of Feeding Behavior
· A. Forgaging: the search of food
o When searching for food animals must take into consideration: time of day what prey how long it should spend trying to search for food
o How to choose optimal food:
§ Calorie maximization hypothesis: calculating the profitability of different sized prey based on the calories contained within it. therefore they would focus on larger prey, well the largest prey that they would be capable of capturing without expending too much energy or potentially getting injured.
§ Foroystercatchers the ideal size of a mussel that they would catch is: 50 millimeters in length
o Strategies: these are behavioral traits that differ among individuals because of their hereditary make up; if one strategy confers higher fitness than the other, eventually only the superior strategy will persist. But under special circumstances two strategies can coexist indefinitely due to frequency dependent selection. This kind of selection occurs when the fitness of one phenotype is a function of its frequency relative to the other phenotype.
o Different types of strategies:
§ Frequency dependent selection provides and answer to the question how can two hereditary phenotypes coexist in the same population? This type of selection occurs when the fitness of one phenotype is a function of its frequency relative to the other phenotype. When the fitness of one phenotype increases as that type becomes rarerthen that phenotype will eventually increase in frequency in the population but only until suh time as it has the same fitness as individuals playing the other strategy.
ú Conditional strategy: which is an inherited mechanism that gives the individual the ability to alter its behavior adaptively in light of the conditions it confronts, such as having high or low status in its social environment.
§ Nesting Colonies: one would think that if a certain animal within a colony is gathering lots of food that its neighbors would notice this and copy him but with black sea gulls it was shown that they usually do not take it into consideration and fly their own direction usually not towards the food.
§ Spider webs: in most cases when a spider places ultra violet silk in their web it is not a function that helps them catch food it actually makes the web more obvious making it easier for the insects to see the web. But these silk webbings can be a way of disguising the spider and giving other animals a notice that there is a web in order to prevent them from colliding with it.
§ Honey bee dances: the way in which a honey bee dances points and directs to the other works where to search for the flower patch and it directs them by making the angle of flowers with sun and dancing at that angle.
§ Also the signals with the dances are also scents and pheromones that carry the scent of the flower; also thy make certain sounds through vibrations that show the rest of the workers where the flowers are.